With increasing use across Penumbra and beyond, I.ROC needed to be validated as a robust and reliable measure.

In order to achieve this we undertook a Knowledge Transfer Partnership with Abertay University in Dundee, Scotland.

The University placed a research associate within Penumbra to conduct the validation. They found that I.ROC was a valid, reliable tool which correlated positively against other validated measures of recovery.

Feedback from those participating in the validation process also found I.ROC was relevant and easy to use. In fact, it was the participants’ preferred questionnaire.

Download a short report on the validation of I.ROC: Validation of I.ROC report

Journal Extracts

The Psychiatrist – The Individual Recovery Outcomes Counter: preliminary validation of a personal recovery measure
Summary: The Individual Recovery Outcomes Counter (I.ROC) is to date the only recovery outcomes instrument developed in Scotland. This paper describes the steps taken to initially assess its validity and reliability, including factorial analysis, internal consistency and a correlation benchmarking analysis.
Key findings:

  • The I.ROC tool showed high internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor structure comprising intrapersonal recovery (factor 1) and interpersonal recovery (factor 2), explaining between them over 50% of the variance in I.ROC scores.
  • There were no redundant items and all loaded on at least one of the factors. The I.ROC significantly correlated with widely used existing instruments assessing both personal recovery and clinical outcomes.
  • Clinical implications I.ROC is a valid and reliable measure of recovery in mental health, preferred by service users when compared with well-established instruments.
  • It could be used in clinical settings to map individual recovery, providing feedback for service users and helping to assess service outcomes.

Authors: Monger B, Hardie S, Ion R, Cumming J, Henderson N
Published: The Psychiatrist, July 2013: 31, 221-227
Link to Journal: http://pb.rcpsych.org/content/37/7/221

British Journal of Mental Health Nursing – A tool to measure progress and outcome in recovery
Summary: Recovery and the use of routine outcome measurement tools are key topics for mental health nurses. This article reports on research carried out to assess the usability of an outcome measure designed to assess recovery in clinical practice. Results indicate that the Individual Recovery Outcomes Counter (I.ROC) is both easy to use and well liked by services users.
Key findings:

  • Outcome measurement in recovery is an important issue. As well as being reliable and valid, a measurement tool must also be usable in routine practice.
  • Data suggests that the I.ROC is an easy-to-use tool, which is well-liked by most service users—regardless of diagnosis.
  • Mental health nurses should consider the I.ROC as a means of assessing and measuring recovery.

Authors: Ion R, Monger B, Hardie S, Henderson N, Cumming J
Published: British Journal of Mental Health Nursing, September/October 2013: 2(4) 56-60
Link to Journal: http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjmh.2013.2.4.211

Mental Health Today – Outcome measurement in a Scottish mental health charity
Summary: Despite a growing literature emphasising its importance, Routine Outcome Measurement (ROM) in the UK remains relatively uncommon. Drawing on the example of Scottish mental health charity Penumbra, this paper provides a case study of how one service is embedding ROM in its everyday work.
Key findings:

  • Routine Outcome Measures (ROM) can have practical benefits for organisations, mental health workers and service users.
  • The individual Recovery Outcomes Counter (I.ROC) has been developed as a ROM for recovery in mental health.
  • Feedback from managers, staff and service users indicates that the I.ROC is user friendly and provides valuable information for these three stake-holder groups.

Authors: Monger B, Ion RM, Henderson N, Cumming J, Hardie SM
Published: Mental Health Today, March/April 2012: 24–27
Link to Journal: